No matter how sags securities publicly traded Internet companies (“Quotes high-tech flying down “), but information technologies have irrevocably changed the world. And here’s Thomas W. Malone (Thomas W. Malone, Director of the Center for collective intelligence Massachusetts Institute of technology, tried to systematize these changes (“How Is the Internet Changing the Way We Work? “). With them is to acquaint our readers with.
First of all, in the spirit of the forgotten now we have a Marxist Professor Malone brings change in society by purely material and purely technological parameter, wholly held at the office of information technology, the communication cost. The first form of communication was oral communication face-to-face. Its capacity is quite enough for small decentralized and egalitarian group (Malone uses the term “bands”) of hunters and gatherers, wandering in the primeval forests and savannas. Yes and the first farmers was enough.
The continuum of interlocking systems on Malone from traditional military organizations to the Internet economy.
Further, agriculture developed, and consistently obtain surplus product has allowed some (good-bye, former equality!) the members of the societies to focus on intellectual work. It was invented by a letter, and that information technology was immediately used for the actual tasks of public administration. The result is a large and centralized society, the life they provided a lot of advantages in comparison with the life of gatherers and hunters, but this has come freedom: the power was concentrated in the hands of kings and all sorts of emperors.
Note that for some reason Malone excludes from consideration the stage of the ancient democracies, the Greek city, which laid the foundations of modern science, philosophy and polity, – cities, full-time resident who was endowed with the property, was obliged to build troops to defend their homeland and have the right to participate in government. By the way, to understand them easily. The idea that a citizen must own property and be sure to serve in the army, is entirely contrary to the current political correctness… And for that-then we can elementarily from the University, regardless of merit.
On Malone moves to the next letters after the stage of development of information technology – the invention of the Guttenberg printing. It, along with paper replaced parchment, radically reduced the cost of storing and disseminating information. Now knowledge were able to see the light of the few libraries of monasteries and castles. Went the first phase of decentralization of information flows, providing the first stage of democratization.
Reformation, religious wars, the first revolution and the first Royal heads rolling down the boards… And, concurrently, the development of productive forces. Public mail and associated Newspapers, optical and electrical telegraphs, telephones… Society became informirovannii, and parallel to this – more democratic, more people participated in independent economic activities, and in management processes.
And then – radio, electronics, digital communications and engulfed the entire planet, the world wide web. All this has led to some changes in business life and in the organization of power – however, according to Malone, still not conscious of most of the planet’s population. To illustrate this he gives a charming example. Compares modern Everyman with the Spaniard-sample shopkeeper 1795.
The organization of societies for the Malone – gang, Kingdom, decentralized network…
The dealer does not believe this, unlike the ancient Egyptians that the then king Carlos IV is a living God, but no doubt in the divine right of the monarch to rule his subjects. And how can you live without a king, he is not. Though heard about the American colonists who decided to live without a king at all. In neighbouring France the revolutionaries, inspired by Enlightenment ideas, overthrew the old regime and launched the full capacity of the guillotine, which could not terrify, respectable man in the street, which was soon to taste the delights of the Napoleonic wars, probably equal in Spain as cruelly, as in Russia.
That is, changes in information technology have been, but the democratic world based on the “book” technology and even had to create. And he realized only after the Second world war, in the form of post-war democracies. Well, now the next network stage in the development of information technology allows, according to Malone, to get a much more free society than the current one. And freedom that can result from the decentralization of industrial areas.